Your Ultimate List of Points in Glossary Creation + (FREE Checklist)

List of Points in Glossary Creation

It is critical for businesses to have their own identity, which is reflected in their use of language.

Therefore, if you want to communicate with international clients and prospects, you must make sure to use a glossary with terms that accurately reflects your company’s personality.

Ultimate List of Points in Glossary Creation

Creating and maintaining a glossary helps avoid confusion and ambiguity to anyone involved in your content – starting from the writer, the translator, and the clients and prospects.

In this article, we focus on glossary creation during a translation process.

DEMA Solutions 4LSCs uses glossaries in any language pair, on a regular basis.

This practice guarantees a consistent, accurate, and clear translation output which helps clients build their company’s branding.

We created a list of points categorized in three stages to measure and apply during the glossary creation process proven by our team of translation experts.

Step 1. Preparation

What is Preparation?

Preparation covers points that make the entire glossary be as ordered as possible and provide a basis to remain in focus.

The six points to prepare prior to glossary creation are:

  1. Goal setting
  2. Target of the publication
  3. Languages involved
  4. Structure of the glossary
  5. Time necessary
  6. Source of information (validated db, existing authorized glossaries)

Step 2. Glossary Creation

What is Glossary Creation?

Glossary creation is the actual setting up of the terminologies to use during the entire translation work.

It may contain some of the fields below (depending on the translator/project manager/translation coordinator).

  1. Term (base form/sing for noun, infinite for verb, male for adj)
  2. Domain – the specific field of application
  3. Phonetic information – phone transcription according to international phonetic alphabet
  4. Linguistic information – a grammar-related information like gender, form, etc)
  5. Context – complete sentence extracted from an authentic text to better explain the meaning.
  6. Definition – accurate description of the concept the term is referring to, using both the common meaning and the domain-specific term.
  7. Technical remark – deeper explanation of the description given at point 6, (i.e. Parts of a machine or phases of a process)
  8. Linguistic remark – further language-related information like irregular forms, accents, etc.
  9. Origin – historical origin and development of the term
  10. Synonyms
  11. Abbreviations/acronyms
  12. Links leading to other similar terms
  13. Equivalent in target language
  14. Reliability of 13
  15. Author of the glossary
  16. Date of creation and update
  17. Bibliography/sources

Step 3: Quality Check and Final Validation

What happens during Quality Check & Final Validation?

Quality check and final validation step proves that the glossary creation is suitable for the intended purpose.

With the help of industry experts (i.e. Medical), a methodical check is necessary plus to confirm the reliability of the sources.

Each glossary must be validated at three levels:

  1. Content – relevant info, valid terms matching in its field
  2. Language – spell check
  3. Bibliography – sources must be quoted according to standard protocol of quotations.

Glossary creation requires an effort to create yet once established, it is a great tool that comes hand in hand making translation work more efficient by saving time, practice consistency, and deliver final  translations that help harmonize your client’s brand.


Ready to create you own glossary?

Download this free checklist to not miss anything in the process.

Culture Languages Translations

Happiness: An Analyses of the Term in Different Languages

Happiness: an analyses of the term in different languages

The Oxford English Dictionary gives the following definitions:

In English:

In a way, happiness (and its antonymous term – unhappiness) are related to the verb to happen, linking them with favourable or unfavourable events taking place outside of us, our state of mind dependent on external factors. In Old English you would wish “good luck” by saying “good hap”.

In Latin, Felicitas means fortune, luck, or more rarely, destiny. (Minois, 2009)

In German, Glück means both happiness and fortune. While its antonym, Unglück, is the state of being sad, unhappy and also means disgrace.

In French we have bonheur and malheur, which follow an identical pattern.

Are we right? Are we sure that happiness comes from what happens to us?
Maybe it’s just a culturally rooted point of view.


What about in Africa? Could African culture give the West a much more interesting perspective?

For instance, the Fante speakers of Ghana describe happiness/excitement literally as “eye-get” (“anigye”) and joy/contentment as “eye-agree/reach” (“anika”), in contrast with shame as “eye-die” (“aniwu”) and guilty as “eye-put” (“anyito” in Dzokoto & Okazaki, 2006)

Suhipelli in Dagbani language (Ghana) can be translated as White heart.

Both languages suggest that Happiness is moving from inside the individual, towards the outside, so it depends on us.

Maybe we should take this possibility into consideration.

Curious to know more?

“Although many theories about the structure of emotion have been developed, none of them seem to adequately explain the African experience. This study examined the folk emotion lexica of two indigenous West African languages. Fifty monolingual Fante speakers and 50 monolingual Dagbani speakers from rural and semirural Ghana participated in focus groups to generate words in their native language that they use to describe experiences that involve emotions. Qualitative analysis of the emotion lexica generated by the focus group participants revealed frequent somatic referencing in the emotion talk of Fante and Dagbani, although there were differences in the specific body parts mentioned in references to various emotional experiences. The ubiquity of somatic referents in the expression of African emotions suggests that future theories of emotion structure may need to incorporate the concept of embodiment.”

“Happiness in the Eye and the Heart: Somatic Referencing in West African Emotion Lexica”, Vivian Afi Dzokoto, Sumie Okazaki,

Happiness in the Eye and the Heart: Somatic Referencing in West African Emotion Lexica
By Shigehiro Oishi, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia

“Several programs of empirical research have also revealed cultural variations in the connotation of happiness. For instance, Lu and Gilmour (2004) found that Americans tend to associate excitement and success with happiness, whereas the Chinese tend to associate peace and calm with happiness. Similarly, Jeanne Tsai and her colleagues found that Taiwanese and Hong Kong Chinese value low-arousal positive affect such as calmness, whereas Americans typically value high-arousal positive affect such as excitement

(Tsai, Knutson, & Fung, 2006). Interestingly, Taiwanese children’s books depicted a mild smile more often than a wide smile, whereas American children’s books depicted a wide smile more often than a mild smile (Tsai, Louie, Chen, & Uchida, 2007). Similarly, Christian texts often use high arousal positive emotions, whereas Buddhist texts often use low arousal positive emotions (Tsai, Miao, & Seppala, 2007). 

Given that American concepts of happiness center on achieving of one’s goals, it makes sense that the resulting emotions are excitement and pride. 

In contrast, given that Chinese conceptions of happiness center on luck, the resulting emotional state might not be excitement but rather akin to gratitude and satisfaction”

By Shigehiro Oishi, Department of Psychology, University of Virginia

How do you express happiness and luck in your language?

Do you differentiate between the two? 

Let us know your thoughts.

If you wish to go deeper on Africa:

Cultural Models of Well-Being Implicit in Four Ghanaian Languages

Folk emotion concepts: Lexicalization of emotional experiences across languages and cultures

By Anna Ogarkova

Happiness in the Eye and the Heart: Somatic Referencing in West African Emotion Lexica

Vivian Afi Dzokoto, Sumie Okazaki

Cultural Models of Well-Being Implicit in Four Ghanaian Languages
Educational Translations

Quality Part I: “Ad meliora et maiora semper”

or continuous aiming at better and greater things.

Among the many meanings of the word “quality”, two are of critical importance to managing for quality:

·         Quality means those features of products which meet customer needs and thereby provide customer satisfaction.

·         Quality means freedom from deficiencies / freedom from errors that require doing work over again (rework) or that result field failures, customer dissatisfaction, customer claims and so on.

We should previously determine which domains can successfully be processed using MTPE. Technical domain, user interfaces, medical translations, patent, legal could be more suitable for MT as they consist in usual phrasing and specific terminology that is standardized. Scientific documents with limited vocabulary are also giving great results. By limited, we consider the number of meanings that a word can have. While we are faced with the complexity of the technical/scientific field, we know that the higher the degree of technical complexity is, the more specific the translation of the word must be, and the more likely that the machine will choose the right word.
Quality is an ancient topic :Code of Hammurabi

Quality is an ancient topic.

In the beginning, Quality Control focused on “after the fact” – The Code of Hammurabi (c. 2000 B.C.) prescribed the death penalty for any builder of a house that later collapsed and killed the owner. So laws were enacted for punishing those whose poor quality caused damages.

This approach proved limited with the growth in science and technology. Therefore, over time, a trend for Quality Regulation “before the fact” emerged, to become preventive in nature.

It is clear that – now more than ever before – quality has come to take center stage. It is crucial for products reaching consumers to guarantee their safety and general satisfaction.

If you feel like going deep into Code of Hammurabi, make sure you don’t miss this source shared by Wikipedia. 

The translation industry plays its role in the process and must comply with the latest quality requirements; thus it is also regulated by International Standards (ISO EN Norms, for instance) in the same way products are.

The nature of translation itself as a nonmaterial good (intangible product according to ISO EN 17100), makes Quality management a subtler topic if compared to measurable features of a material object. It is not possible to perform a chemical analyses or a lab test to check for objective failures.

So how do we strive towards Quality?
What are our tools to ensure it?




LSCs working in our industry are well aware that QA Check is a powerful tool evaluating the performance of a specific project and implementing necessary corrections. It can be embedded in the CAT Tools or used as a further stand-alone step. It provides for quality assurance by pointing out errors and warnings from terminology, spelling, inconsistencies to missing localization standards.

Yet quality control in a broader sense aims at ‘continual improvement’. This term connotes the ongoing nature of strategy and its main purpose is to verify that control is being attained and maintained.

Every single step of the process shall aim at quality.

Clear communication between client and LSC is crucial to successfully carry out the tasks on a specific translation project, and also to maintain and improve the quality on future projects through the virtuous habit of using a feedback loop. Systematic planning for quality control, with extensive participation of all stakeholders is the key: Quality is the result of interactive cooperation between the client and the provider of translation.

While the 20th Century has been the ‘century of productivity’, the 21st Century will be known as the ‘Century of Quality
[Juran J.M.- 1989].

Want to discover more of
Quality Assurance?

Let us take you deeper into it.

Desktop Publishing Translations

Desktop Publishing or DTP in Translation Industry: Which factors make it essential?

Desktop Publishing or DTP is a process of using computer software specialized to create page layout and designs.

So why do translation companies offer DTP services?

During the translation of documents from one language to another, the number of words in the final output is never the same. Different language means different words.

Imagine this during instances wherein a company has to translate its marketing collateral (ie brochure) into another language, this means not only changing the text but as well as adjusting the entire page layout too. The whole page is affected as the text changes. This type of project requires not only translation services.

Therefore, the role of Desktop Publishing steps in. DTP creates page layouts in the target language while being mindful of the page elements such as spaces, size, font, columns, images, shapes, and icons.

It requires a trained DTP Specialist to manage the challenge of putting all the changes brought by the target language in contrast while preserving the original appearance as much as possible.

The most common programs used to create and enhance all these graphic components are Autodesk AutoCAD, Adobe InDesign, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe FrameMaker, and Adobe PageMaker.

A visually well-constructed document impacts the audience as it makes its image more memorable and effective.

As Steven Bradley quoted, ” Human beings have an attractiveness bias; we perceive beautiful things as being better, regardless of whether they actually are better. All else being equal, we prefer beautiful things and we believe beautiful things function better. As in nature, function can follow form. “

Below are the factors which make Desktop Publishing essential in the translation industry:

1.) Direction of text

There are documents translated into a language with different direction of writing. Languages that are written from right to left such as Arabic, Aramaic, Dhivehi/Maldivian, Hebrew, Kurdish (Sorani), Persian/Farsi, and Urdu. Also, there are languages from top to bottom direction like Japanese.

2.) Narrowed or extended words

Translating to languages such as Spanish and French extends the entire content up to 30%. Meanwhile, if translated to Chinese, the content becomes shorter simply because this language is logographic. Every shortened or expanded text means another set of adjustments and transformations within the page layout.

3.) Knowledge of fonts

Not all alphabets are compatible with every font design. Numerous languages have their own characters. DTP specialists have broad experience and knowledge of the font compatibilities for the language you need.

4.) Graphic design skills

With wide knowledge in image editing using various graphic design software, DTP specialists are capable of modifying text on images in the target language required.

5.) File format

If you are submitting a .pdf file as your source file, then you need a DTP service. DTP professionals manipulate page layouts of documents in different file types. They are experts in handling files in different formats.

6.) Translation Quality Assurance

The translation quality of every page layout is accessible anytime for review and revision. Usually, desktop publishers are language experts themselves. In addition, the team has in-house proofreaders who can triple-check if there is any translation error. There is higher confidence with the standard of the page layout and design, as well as the translation accuracy.

Translation and Desktop Publishing comes hand-in-hand that is why it’s ideal to have both done from one place or source. Like us in DEMA Solutions 4LSCs where we offer both solutions in order to deliver a consistent and quality result.

Together, the primary goal is to deliver a graphically presentable layout and a clear comprehensible document in its target language.

Translations Uncategorized

What’s the Process of Translation?

What's the process of translation?

According to Cambridge Dictionary, the word “process” means a series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result.

Just imagine a workflow that is done not accordingly like this: the third step executed as first, the fourth step is skipped, then the seventh step is forgotten. There is no doubt that this will end in a totally inappropriate outcome.

Performing a chronological process to achieve a task ensures the quality of the final output. It avoids errors that may cause inconvenience and difficulties to the users and consumers. But if an error does occur, it is easier to identify what is missing and which part the mistake took place by going back through each step. From there, it is not difficult to fix.

Once a process is established and you familiarized yourself with it, the job will be faster and more accurate. A process secures every product or service to maintain its high-quality standards. This is why it is universally applied to every industry, as well as in translation companies.

In this blog post, we will enumerate the steps of a translation process and define each of them.

1. Project Review
This is the first stage wherein the preparation of raw untranslated text happens. Complete project information must be provided such as target audience, document purpose, reference materials, and text format.

2. Glossary
A glossary is a collection of terminologies used to retain consistency. In this step, the client gives the glossary if it already exists or if there’s none, then the translation company will create one based on their references.

3. Translation
This is where the production of source language text is translated to the target language occurs.

4. Check
The target language text carried out by the translator is examined.

5. Revision
This part is also known as Editing in TEP process (Translation, Editing, Proofreading) or bilingual examination. This is where both target language text and source language text are compared to each other.

6. Review
Also known as monolingual examination wherein target language text is reviewed for its suitability for the agreed purpose.

7. Proofread
In this stage, the revised target language text is examined and corrections are applied.

8. Quality Control
The last stage reassures the final output to its top quality. It’s run for one last time to search then perform final edits if necessary. Once done, the translation agency will deliver the final document translation within the agreed delivery date.

Having a translation process is beneficial to both clients and translators. It gives both sides a good organization of tasks, a better understanding of the procedure, saves time and energy from revising errors, and shows professionalism.

It is ideal to let clients be aware of how the translation job is done. Whenever a follow-up inquiry comes up, it is easy to explain the progress of the work in detail. Overall, following a process makes any job successful.

To end this blog post, we are including an infographic to share our translation process with you. If you are thinking about to have some document translated and curious about how translation companies do it, then this is for you.


Top 5 Personal Documents That Need Translation And Why

Top 5 Personal Documents That Need Translation And Why

Let’s start with this question:

When was the last time you scanned through your file storage containing your personal documents?

Now the next question:

Which of those did you realize has a need for translation?

Perhaps it was quite some time ago, like months ago, or maybe years ago you gave your well-kept box a thorough look.

Throughout this hectic life, people are often occupied only by usual daily tasks. We live in a busy lifestyle that we only think of what we immensely need, and put on the side what’s not.

However, placing things aside means putting them at risk of being neglected or hence, completely be left behind. To name one of those is the need for document translations.

This blog post might help inform you or maybe just remind you why it is important to translate personal documents.

1. Birth Certificate

A birth certificate is the first document that sets as proof of one’s identity the moment a person is born on this planet. Therefore, this what makes it one of the most essential papers you’ll ever have. It is also the most common requirement for various purposes such as for academic requisites, applying for a passport, obtaining visas, acquiring government I.D.s, registering a marriage, plus other legal purposes.

But in a few cases, there will be a point in life wherein an individual/s will have to move out of the country, go for the study exchange, or get married to a foreign national.

Thus, a birth certificate written in your own language may sometimes not be accepted in another country unless translated in their native language. In this case, you will need to seek help from a professional translation service to request a certified translated version of your birth certificate.

2. Marriage Certificate

Another essential document you might need to get translated is your marriage certificate. This depends on the country you held the ceremony. Some countries provide a version of an internationally valid marriage certificate along with the original, some don’t. Some give it in English by default so it all varies from one country to another.

Here is an example based on personal experience.

I and my husband met while working on a cruise ship together. We both hold a different nationality. The wedding ceremony was held in Serbia. Our certificate is originally written in Serbian by default. As soon as we obtained our marriage certificate, we immediately had it translated into English to be able to use it internationally in any case.

Then, that moment came. As now a legally united couple, we wanted to stay on the same ship to live and work together. If we are not officially registered then we will randomly and separately be assigned to one of the 41 ships in the fleet of the company. So, in order to do that, we have to submit a proof of our unison. The only requirement is to submit a certified copy of our marriage contract translated into English.

A few days after submission, we received the approval without any problems. We stayed together on the same ship throughout our working years at sea.

Every situation differs from one another. To conclude this case, if you think translating documents such as a marriage certificate has advantages, then don’t waste time. Better be ready than sorry. Start asking for translation assistance. All you need is to contact the translation service, submit the document, and the translation job will be done smoothly for you.

3. Diploma and Transcript of Records

Diploma and Transcript of Records are documents proving your academic attainment.

If you completed your studies abroad, most likely you’ll have the need to translate them. This could either be for Visa Immigration requirement, an employment prerequisite, or maybe for another educational plan like higher studies in another foreign country.


4. Curriculum Vitae/ CV and Cover Letter

A Curriculum Vitae and a Cover Letter are the most vital documents for job searching. These documents serve as the self-introduction to recruiters thus require to be delicately structured. Since recruiters are spending less and less time viewing loads of job applications, then every job hunter must consider the first millisecond as the only chance to grab a recruiter’s attention.

That is through language. A curriculum vitae and a cover letter that is written in a language that the recruiter understands is what makes him proceed to read.

In the international market, there is a high competition among job seekers. With applicants holding well-gained experiences plus an effort to make their CV visually appealing, then recruiters will have a good impression. However, you must consider language as the initial aspect to look at when searching for a career opportunity in a foreign place.

So the first most thing to consider before sending out your CV and cover letter is asking yourself, “Is my CV composed in a language which the recruiter understands?”.

5. Title Deeds

Title Deeds are legal documents that stand as evidence of the rights of ownership to one’s property.

So why translate it?

One of the most common purposes is for visa or immigration. The immigration authorities may ask for the officially translated documents as a requirement to prove deep-rootedness to your country. Visa applicants should consider this document as one of the best evidence stating their connection to their home country.

Another occasion can be for future purposes especially when speaking about family inheritance. In circumstances when it happens to have a number of family members who live abroad but have kept close-tied to their roots or made plans to settle back home one day, it will be practical to translate the documents in a language that the entire family will understand without limits.

The availability of your personal documents in another language gives you an extended scope of opportunities internationally, plus an advantage of a hassle-free process.

We hope that this blog post helped remind you of which documents you need for translating, and who knows, maybe your next life adventure away is on the way, so better get it all prepared!

If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to message us here.


Basics of Translation, Localization, and Transcreation

When you hear the words translation, localization, and transcreation, do they confuse you about what makes them different to each other? They may sound the same yet they do differ by their concepts.

Translations, Localization, Transcreation

Yet why does it matter to differentiate them?

If you’ve gone this far and reached this blog post then that means you are researching what could be the best possible description of their meaning and functions. It is important to distinguish their differences so you know what best suits your needs.

Perhaps, you do know you need a language to be rendered into another but looking up through the internet what and how just tangles that idea after seeing thousands of results from the search engines, at the same time seeing different terminologies which make them sound all identical. So let us help you untangle the confusion and explain it as simple, fast, and clear as we can.

Let’s simplify the differences of Translation, Localization, and Transcreation:

Translation means the process of transforming words into a different language. The goal here is for the translator to convert the message to another language, at the same time be understood like the way it was written from the original. The skilled translator conveys the best equivalent text version in the target language. Examples of most common translated documents are instruction manuals, technical publications, literature, legal documents, and medical documents.

Localization is as well the transformation of a message into another language but there is more than that. It adapts a specific standard depending on its target region. This applies not only in text but also in objects such as color, shape, symbol, number, unit, and other formats. A localized article should base its guidelines matching the region’s functional and cultural considerations. It requires to be more delicate in detail in order to avoid errors that might be inappropriate or sensitive to target locales. Localization is mostly applied for websites, mobile applications, video games, software, e-learning, and multimedia content.

Transcreation comes from the combination of two words: translation + creation. This also has to do with adjusting with the demographics. It is an act of transforming the message to be culturally appropriate for a specific culture without losing the emotional and conceptual meaning of the original message. This also means without changing its tone, style, and context. Transcreation is usually used for creative translations such as idioms, mottos, slogans, humor, marketing, and branding messages.

Converting your original message to another language takes a thorough analysis first. You need to consider the purpose of your text so the outcome will be meaningful and memorable.

We hope this article helped you to understand the basics of Translation, Localization, and Transcreation.

If you need further explanation or have any questions, or maybe just to say hi, then feel free to contact us anytime at