Your Ultimate List of Points in Glossary Creation + (FREE Checklist)

List of Points in Glossary Creation

It is critical for businesses to have their own identity, which is reflected in their use of language.

Therefore, if you want to communicate with international clients and prospects, you must make sure to use a glossary with terms that accurately reflects your company’s personality.

Ultimate List of Points in Glossary Creation

Creating and maintaining a glossary helps avoid confusion and ambiguity to anyone involved in your content – starting from the writer, the translator, and the clients and prospects.

In this article, we focus on glossary creation during a translation process.

DEMA Solutions 4LSCs uses glossaries in any language pair, on a regular basis.

This practice guarantees a consistent, accurate, and clear translation output which helps clients build their company’s branding.

We created a list of points categorized in three stages to measure and apply during the glossary creation process proven by our team of translation experts.

Step 1. Preparation

What is Preparation?

Preparation covers points that make the entire glossary be as ordered as possible and provide a basis to remain in focus.

The six points to prepare prior to glossary creation are:

  1. Goal setting
  2. Target of the publication
  3. Languages involved
  4. Structure of the glossary
  5. Time necessary
  6. Source of information (validated db, existing authorized glossaries)

Step 2. Glossary Creation

What is Glossary Creation?

Glossary creation is the actual setting up of the terminologies to use during the entire translation work.

It may contain some of the fields below (depending on the translator/project manager/translation coordinator).

  1. Term (base form/sing for noun, infinite for verb, male for adj)
  2. Domain – the specific field of application
  3. Phonetic information – phone transcription according to international phonetic alphabet
  4. Linguistic information – a grammar-related information like gender, form, etc)
  5. Context – complete sentence extracted from an authentic text to better explain the meaning.
  6. Definition – accurate description of the concept the term is referring to, using both the common meaning and the domain-specific term.
  7. Technical remark – deeper explanation of the description given at point 6, (i.e. Parts of a machine or phases of a process)
  8. Linguistic remark – further language-related information like irregular forms, accents, etc.
  9. Origin – historical origin and development of the term
  10. Synonyms
  11. Abbreviations/acronyms
  12. Links leading to other similar terms
  13. Equivalent in target language
  14. Reliability of 13
  15. Author of the glossary
  16. Date of creation and update
  17. Bibliography/sources

Step 3: Quality Check and Final Validation

What happens during Quality Check & Final Validation?

Quality check and final validation step proves that the glossary creation is suitable for the intended purpose.

With the help of industry experts (i.e. Medical), a methodical check is necessary plus to confirm the reliability of the sources.

Each glossary must be validated at three levels:

  1. Content – relevant info, valid terms matching in its field
  2. Language – spell check
  3. Bibliography – sources must be quoted according to standard protocol of quotations.

Glossary creation requires an effort to create yet once established, it is a great tool that comes hand in hand making translation work more efficient by saving time, practice consistency, and deliver final  translations that help harmonize your client’s brand.


Ready to create you own glossary?

Download this free checklist to not miss anything in the process.

Desktop Publishing File Preparation

A Brief Four-Step Guide in Translating a Low-Quality Scanned PDF

A Brief Four-Step Guide in Translating a Low-Quality Scanned PDF

All language service companies receive requests to translate scanned pdf documents. Receiving them in low quality is not a surprise.

It happens for many reasons.

Sometimes, the person who scanned the documents was in a rush, unsure how to scan properly, the scanner is in bad condition, or simply unaware how a badly scanned document can impact other areas of work.

Translating low-quality scanned pdf documents is definitely a drain on time. 

However, there are couple of angles to understand to get them ready for translation processes.

What low-quality scanned pdf documents are like?

For language service companies, low-quality scanned pdfs means that files are hardly suitable and understood by both the translator and computer software, particularly CAT Tools (Computer-Assisted Translation Tools).

Low-quality scanned pdf can be anywhere from dark photocopies, old faxes, photographed papers, documents with handwritten parts, up to medical reports with annotations.

For example, take a look at this scanned documents:

Low-Quality Scanned PDF Document (image source:
Image source:

How can anyone start translating a document, may it be a pdf or another file format, if neither a human nor a computer cannot understand and process?

CAT Tools are software tools that support translation professionals in the process of converting written text from one language to another.

As any other software, it is programmed with specific requirements to pass.

If scanned documents are in almost unreadable quality level, there will have no chance of importing them correctly.

This is where our skills and experience get ready in action as soon as we spot low-quality pdf documents.

In this article, we go over the four steps followed by DEMA Solutions 4LSCs in translating low-quality scanned pdf documents.

1. File Analysis

File Analysis is the crucial step wherein we assess the file to understand the best way to proceed.

It is possible to extract the whole layout structure of the document with OCR (Optical Character Recognition).

Sometimes, it makes sense to recreate the structure of a file from scratch and use OCR to partially retrieve characters.

2. Assistance Using Technology – OCR

After analyzing, we rebuild your scanned document to make it editable on computer with the help of OCR (Optical Character Recognition).

This results in making the scanned file translatable.

In cases where in the pdf is blurry, OCR is sometimes not sufficient.

When it doesn’t recognize a font, it automatically inserts squares or miswrites letters and/or numbers.

3. File Preparation

Our team of professional desktop publishing specialists perform a process called File Preparation.

They prepare the files by getting them rid of unwanted lines, page breaks, double spaces, tabs, tabbed columns in charts, non-editable text in images and/or more similar formatting issues.

This cleaning process optimizes segmentation when the files are imported to the CAT Tool which helps maintain a clean Translation Memory and facilitate translators’ work. 

4. Human Touch

When it comes to accuracy after a computer-assisted method was carried out, it is still questionable if the output will be 100% precise.

As much as we use technology to support our processes, DEMA Solutions 4LSCs leverages more on human talent and effort.

Our robust network of linguists allows us to find and assign a proofreader, who is a linguist speaking the target language, to check the result of the extracted texts.

Proofreading also includes fixing typos and retyping some parts of the document, especially in the case of handwritten texts.

Taking into due account the quality of a scanned document is a part of preparation for the entire translation project.

Translating a scanned pdf is far from the tip of the berg when it comes to file preparation. 

This is why missing this basic step is an aspect one must not take for granted.

As Alexander Graham Bell said,

“Before anything else. preparation is the key to success.”

Find this guide helpful? Don’t forget to share it with your network. 

Arts Culture

Biennale Arte 2022 and the Sami Languages

Biennale Arte 2022
59TH International Art Exhibition, Venice
"The Milk of Dreams"
23.04 - 27.11 2022

The Milk of Dreams exhibit showcases the work of over two hundred artists from 58 countries.

Out of these, more than 180 artists are participating in the Biennale for the first time.

For the first time in its 127-year history, the Biennale will be composed mainly of women and gender non-conforming artists.

This choice reflects the current global art scene, which is full of creativity and a deliberate rethinking of traditional power structures.

Cecilia Alemani is a curator who has organized many exhibitions of contemporary artists.

She is currently Director and Chief Curator of High Line Art, the programme of public art of the urban park in New York, and is the past curator of the Italian Pavilion at the Biennale Arte 2017.

“As the first Italian woman to hold this position, I intend to give voice to artists to create unique projects that reflect their visions and our society”, Alemani has declared.

Three Sámi artists at the Venice Biennale

The Nordic Countries Pavilion at the 59th Venice Biennale of Art will be identified as the Sámi Pavilion.

Selected to carry out an ambitious project coordinated by OCA – Office for Contemporary Art Norway, artists Pauliina Feodoroff, Máret Ánne Sara and Anders Sunna, all three belonging to the Sámi community, will be interpreters of an artistic intervention that promises to be of epochal importance.

We discussed this with Katya Garcia-Ántón , curator of the Sámi Pavilion and historical director of OCA, recently appointed as the next director of the Nordnorsk Kunstmuseum in Tromsø.

The Nordic Countries Pavilion at the 59th Venice Biennale of Art will be identified as the Sámi Pavilion . Selected to carry out an ambitious project coordinated by OCA - Office for Contemporary Art Norway , artists Pauliina Feodoroff, Máret Ánne Sara and Anders Sunna, all three belonging to the Sámi community, will be interpreters of an artistic intervention that promises to be of epochal importance.
Nils Aslak Valkeapää, Untitled, 1991. Photo credit Susanne Hætta - Stiftelsen Lásságámmi

Sámi Languages

The Sámi/Saami Languages languages are Fenno-Ugrian languages spoken from central Sweden and Mid-Southern Norway to the tip of the Kola Peninsula in Russia by 25,000-35,000 speakers.

In terms of internal relationships, the Sámi languages are divided into two groups: western and eastern.

The number of ethnic Sámi is nearly 100,000.

According to Wikipedia, the written languages and sociolinguistic situation of the Sámi languages in Fennoscandia says that there are nine of them living in the present.

The largest six of the languages have independent literary languages; the three others have no written standard, and of them, there are only a few, mainly elderly, speakers left.

The ISO 639-2 code for all Sami languages without their own code is “smi”.

The seven written languages are:

  • Northern Sami (Norway, Sweden, Finland): With an estimated 15,000 speakers, this accounts for probably more than 75% of all Sami speakers in 2002.[citation needed] ISO 639-1/ISO 639-2: se/sme
  • Lule Sami (Norway, Sweden): The second largest group with an estimated 1,500 speakers.[citation needed] ISO 639-2: smj
  • Ume Sami (Norway, Sweden): ISO 639-2: smu
  • Southern Sami (Norway, Sweden): 500 speakers (estimated).[citation needed] ISO 639-2: sma
  • Inari Sami (Enare Sami) (Inari, Finland): 500 speakers (estimated).[citation needed] SIL code: LPI, ISO 639-2: smn
  • Skolt Sami (Näätämö and the Nellim-Keväjärvi districts, Inari municipality, Finland, also spoken in Russia, previously in Norway): 400 speakers (estimated).[citation needed] SIL code: LPK, ISO 639-2: sms
  • Kildin Sami (Kola Peninsula, Russia): 608 speakers in Murmansk Oblast, 179 in other Russian regions, although 1991 persons stated their Saami ethnicity (1769 of them live in Murmansk Oblast)[22] SIL code: LPD, ISO 639-3: sjd

Sámi/Saami Languages languages are in danger of becoming extinct. Pite Sami has around 30-50 speakers, and a dictionary and an official orthography are in the works.

A descriptive grammar (Wilbur 2014) has been published.

Ume Sami likely has less than 20 speakers left, and Ter Sami is known to have only 10 speakers remaining.

The last speaker of Akkala Sami died in 2003, and Kemi Sami became extinct in the 19th century.

For an in-depth information about this language, here is a comprehensive resource – The Saami Languages: the present and the future.

For the Italian-speaking audience about Sámi Culture and the Biennale

Having been a fan of international activities, it’s unavoidable not to find a resource where I can read more content, in my native language.

So, I stumbled and recommending one for the Italian-speaking audience, with a very interesting content starting with 


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Translations Uncategorized

What’s the Process of Translation?

What's the process of translation?

According to Cambridge Dictionary, the word “process” means a series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result.

Just imagine a workflow that is done not accordingly like this: the third step executed as first, the fourth step is skipped, then the seventh step is forgotten. There is no doubt that this will end in a totally inappropriate outcome.

Performing a chronological process to achieve a task ensures the quality of the final output. It avoids errors that may cause inconvenience and difficulties to the users and consumers. But if an error does occur, it is easier to identify what is missing and which part the mistake took place by going back through each step. From there, it is not difficult to fix.

Once a process is established and you familiarized yourself with it, the job will be faster and more accurate. A process secures every product or service to maintain its high-quality standards. This is why it is universally applied to every industry, as well as in translation companies.

In this blog post, we will enumerate the steps of a translation process and define each of them.

1. Project Review
This is the first stage wherein the preparation of raw untranslated text happens. Complete project information must be provided such as target audience, document purpose, reference materials, and text format.

2. Glossary
A glossary is a collection of terminologies used to retain consistency. In this step, the client gives the glossary if it already exists or if there’s none, then the translation company will create one based on their references.

3. Translation
This is where the production of source language text is translated to the target language occurs.

4. Check
The target language text carried out by the translator is examined.

5. Revision
This part is also known as Editing in TEP process (Translation, Editing, Proofreading) or bilingual examination. This is where both target language text and source language text are compared to each other.

6. Review
Also known as monolingual examination wherein target language text is reviewed for its suitability for the agreed purpose.

7. Proofread
In this stage, the revised target language text is examined and corrections are applied.

8. Quality Control
The last stage reassures the final output to its top quality. It’s run for one last time to search then perform final edits if necessary. Once done, the translation agency will deliver the final document translation within the agreed delivery date.

Having a translation process is beneficial to both clients and translators. It gives both sides a good organization of tasks, a better understanding of the procedure, saves time and energy from revising errors, and shows professionalism.

It is ideal to let clients be aware of how the translation job is done. Whenever a follow-up inquiry comes up, it is easy to explain the progress of the work in detail. Overall, following a process makes any job successful.

To end this blog post, we are including an infographic to share our translation process with you. If you are thinking about to have some document translated and curious about how translation companies do it, then this is for you.